THIRD EDITION CHING Architecture/Reference or more than thirty years, the beautifully illustrated Architecture: Form, Space, and Order has been the classic. be utilized to create order in an architectural composition. Order refers not The forms and spaces of any building should acknowledge the hierarchy inherent in. ARCHITECTURE Form, Space, & Order Third Edition ARCHITECTURE Form, Ching, Frank, Architecture--form, space, & order / Francis D.K. Ching.
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Closure Four Planes: Note that the form of the volume is determined solely by the configuration of the linear elements. Conceptually, a plane has length and width, but no depth.
Shape is the primary identifying characteristic of a plane. It is determined by the contour of the line forming the edges of a plane.
Architecture: Form, Space, and Order
Because our perception of shape can be distorted by perspective foreshortening, we see the true shape of a plane only when we view it frontally.
The supplementary properties of a plane—its surface color, pattern, and texture—affect its visual weight and stability. In the composition of a visual construction, a plane serves to define the limits or boundaries of a volume. If architecture as a visual art deals specifically with the formation of three- dimensional volumes of mass and space, then the plane should be regarded as a key element in the vocabulary of architectural design. The properties of each plane—size, shape, color, texture —as well as their spatial relationship to one another ultimately determine the visual attributes of the form they define and the qualities of the space they enclose.
In architectural design, we manipulate three generic types of planes: Overhead Plane The overhead plane can be either the roof plane that spans and shelters the interior spaces of a building from the climatic elements, or the ceiling plane that forms the upper enclosing surface of a room.
Wall Plane The wall plane, because of its vertical orientation, is active in our normal field of vision and vital to the shaping and enclosure of architectural space.
Base Plane The base plane can be either the ground plane that serves as the physical foundation and visual base for building forms, or the floor plane that forms the lower enclosing surface of a room upon which we walk.
Along with climate and other environmental conditions of a site, the topographical character of the ground plane influences the form of the building that rises from it. The building can merge with the ground plane, rest firmly on it, or be elevated above it. The ground plane itself can be manipulated as well to establish a podium for a building form.
It can be elevated to honor a sacred or significant place; bermed to define outdoor spaces or buffer against undesirable conditions; carved or terraced to provide a suitable platform on which to build; or stepped to allow changes in elevation to be easily traversed. Scala de Spagna Spanish Steps , Rome, — Three terraces approached by ramps rise toward the base of the cliffs where the chief sanctuary is cut deep into the rock.
Machu Picchu, an ancient Incan city established c. It may be a durable covering of the ground plane or a more artificial, elevated plane spanning the space between its supports. In either case, the texture and density of the flooring material influences both the acoustical quality of a space and how we feel as we walk across its surface.
While the pragmatic, supportive nature of the floor plane limits the extent to which it can be manipulated, it is nonetheless an important element of architectural design.
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Its shape, color, and pattern determine to what degree it defines spatial boundaries or serves as a unifying element for the different parts of a space. Like the ground plane, the form of a floor plane can be stepped or terraced to break the scale of a space down to human dimensions and create platforms for sitting, viewing, or performing.
It can be elevated to define a sacred or honorific place. It can be rendered as a neutral ground against which other elements in a space are seen as figures. Maria Novella, Florence, — The Renaissance facade by Alberti presents a public face to a square.
Exterior wall planes isolate a portion of space to create a controlled interior Uffizi Palace, —65, Giorgio Vasari. Their construction provides both privacy and protection from the This Florentine street defined by the two wings of the Uffizi climatic elements for the interior spaces of a building, while openings within or Palace links the Piazza della Signoria with the River Arno. As exterior walls mold interior space, they simultaneously shape exterior space and describe the form, massing, and image of a building in space.
As a design element, the plane of an exterior wall can be articulated as the front or primary facade of a building. In urban situations, these facades serve as walls that define courtyards, streets, and such public gathering places as squares and marketplaces.
Piazza of San Marco, Venice. When arranged in a parallel series to support an overhead floor or roof plane, bearing walls define linear slots of space with strong directional qualities. These spaces can be related to one another only by interrupting the bearing walls to create perpendicular zones of space.
Peyrissac Residence, Cherchell, North Africa, , Le Corbusier Country House in Brick, Project, , Mies van der Rohe In the project to the right, freestanding brick bearing walls, together with L-shaped and T-shaped configurations of planes, create an interlocking series of spaces.
Their visual properties, their relationship to one another, and articulated as an element isolated from adjacent planes. It can be treated as a the size and distribution of openings within their boundaries determine both passive or receding backdrop for other elements in the space, or it can assert the quality of the spaces they define and the degree to which adjoining spaces itself as a visually active element within a room by virtue of its form, color, relate to one another.
While walls provide privacy for interior spaces and serve as barriers that limit our movement, doorways and windows reestablish continuity with neighboring spaces and allow the passage of light, heat, and sound. As they increase in size, these openings begin to erode the natural sense of enclosure walls provide. Views seen through the openings become part of the spatial experience.
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The lamella structure expresses the way forces are resolved and channeled down to the roof supports. The detached vaulted ceiling plane appears to float above the bed. While we walk on a floor and have physical contact with walls, the ceiling plane As a detached lining, the ceiling plane can symbolize the sky vault or be the is usually out of our reach and is almost always a purely visual event in a space. It can It may be the underside of an overhead floor or roof plane and express the serve as a repository for frescoes and other means of artistic expression or be form of its structure as it spans the space between its supports, or it may be treated simply as a passive or receding surface.
It can be raised or lowered to suspended as the upper enclosing surface of a room or hall.
Its form can be manipulated to control the quality of light or sound within a space. Church at Vuoksenniska, Finland, , Alvar Aalto.
The form of the ceiling plane defines a progression of spaces and enhances their acoustical quality. The form and geometry of its structure is established by the manner in which it spans across space to bear on its supports and slopes to shed rain and melting snow. As a design element, the roof plane is significant because of the impact it can have on the form and silhouette of a building within its setting. Dolmen, a prehistoric monument consisting of two or more large upright The roof plane can be hidden from view by the exterior walls of a stones supporting a horizontal stone slab, found especially in Britain and building or merge with the walls to emphasize the volume of the France and usually regarded as a burial place for an important person.
It can be expressed as a single sheltering form that encompasses a variety of spaces beneath its canopy, or comprise a number of hats that articulate a series of spaces within a single building. A roof plane can extend outward to form overhangs that shield door and window openings from sun or rain, or continue downward further still to relate itself more closely to the ground plane. In warm climates, it can be elevated to allow cooling breezes to flow across and through the interior spaces of a building.
The low sloping roof planes and broad overhangs are characteristic of the Prairie School of Architecture. A grid of columns elevates the reinforced concrete roof slab above the main volume of the house. Reinforced concrete slabs express the horizontality of the floor and roof planes as they cantilever outward from a central vertical core.
The overall form of a building can be endowed with a distinctly planar quality by carefully introducing openings that expose the edges of vertical and horizontal planes. These planes can be further differentiated and accentuated by changes in color, texture, or material. Asymmetrical compositions of simple rectangular forms and primary colors characterized the de Stijl school of art and architecture.
Conceptually, a volume has three dimensions: All volumes can be analyzed and understood to consist of: It is established by the shapes and interrelationships of the planes that describe the boundaries of the volume. As the three-dimensional element in the vocabulary of architectural design, a volume can be either a solid— space displaced by mass—or a void—space contained or enclosed by planes.
It is important to perceive this duality, especially when reading orthographic plans, elevations, and sections.
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Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. Need an account?The visual field surrounding a form influences our ability to read and identify it. Note that the form of the volume is determined solely by the configuration of the linear elements.
Since the parallel planes do not meet to form corners and fully enclose the field, the space is extroverted in nature. If openings are introduced between the enclosing planes at all four corners of a space, the individual identity of the planes will be reinforced and diagonal or pinwheel patterns of space, use, and movement will be encouraged. The elevated ground plane can be a preexisting site condition, or it can be artificially constructed to deliberately raise a building above the surrounding context or enhance its image in the landscape.
Regardless of their disposition within the field, these spaces, if seen as positive forms, will create a second set of negative spaces. Our perception and understanding of a composition depends on how we interpret the visual interaction between the positive and negative elements within its field. Overhead Plane A horizontal plane located overhead defines a volume of space between itself and the ground plane.
Their composition can be seen to consist essentially of linear forms. Would you like to change to the United States site?
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